Grafico

Grafico

The sum of the debts of the public administrations, companies and Spanish households at the end of last year was around 3.3 billion euros, an amount that exceeds by more than three times the gross domestic product of the country. But, who owes money to who? Does each economic agent how many creditors? Have you changed the profile of debtors and lenders throughout the crisis much? A single graphic resolves all doubts.

The latest report from the Foundation of the savings banks (Funcas) calculates that closing of the set of public administrations last year, households and businesses had debts valued at no less than 3.3 billion euros, an amount that multiplies by more than three times the Spanish gross domestic product and which has boosted the aggregate debt of Spain now sits about 150 billion above that existed in 2007.

Companies are due money among themselves and also have outstanding payment of billions to the banks and to the outside. Households, on the other hand, only must accountability to the financial sector, while the administrations also have as creditors to other international actors. In addition, all debts and loans have altered its value over the past six years.

This reflection suggests that Spanish debt made up a tangle of figures difficult to digest, but the truth is that Funcas attempted to shed some light on how it has changed during the crisis through a single graph... and this is the result:

The graph shows that companies (non-financial companies), as well as families, have sharply reduced the volume of debt. In particular, at the end of last year had to 1.42 billion euros, around 300,000 million less than six years earlier.

And who should all that money? Creditors are many, but include, in this order, the banks (they must 531 million), other companies, mostly via credit from suppliers (504 million), creditors of the rest of the world (287 million) and financial institutions non-monetary, such as investment or pension funds (104 million).

The report places particular emphasis on the strong reduction of the indebtedness of non-financial companies, which has been possible, according to Funcas, a number of factors:

"In Spain, and within the private sector, sanitation has been most intense in the business sector, a result of the intensity of the credit crunch in some segments, like construction and promotion; the urgency to reduce the dependence on external financing, in a context of high funding costs, and under the new resource requirements taking into account the reduction in the volume of business. "The improvement was also due to adjustments wage and investment in assets that have been applied have been more aggressive than those who have suffered in terms of production", argues the Agency.

In December 2014, says Funcas, Spanish families had to 743.000 million euros, almost three-fourths of the richness of Spain, and all that money came from a single creditor: the financial system. As a methodological note, the study recalls that in that amount has not been into account debt that households may have with trades with deferred purchases.

The figure is really shocking (is the largest in a single debtor with a lender), but the point of view changes if we look at how much it amounted in 2008. And it is that Spanish families have undergone a process of deleveraging during the years of crisis that has led them to reduce their debt by 15%, which translated into money represents about 140 billion euros.

Funcas recalled that 80% of the debt is linked to the housing and its depreciation is in the long term, hence the ability of families to purpose is is smaller than the companies.

"The fact that the bulk of the household debt materialize in long-term mortgage loans and is in the hands of households with significant income restrictions explains the more slowly in the process of deleveraging family. Even so, the household debt has fallen 12 points of GDP in the same period, in terms of disposable income representing a substantial improvement, since in 2008 the debt of households exceeded in 1.3 times their income against 1.13 times in 2014 ", argues.

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